[At the battle of Lewes , 14 May 1264 , FULK IV was drowned while escaping from the field; afterwards] Simon de Montfort sought the aid of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd and one of the means of doing this was to grant to Llywelyn , on 22 June 1265 , the service of the lord of Whittington ; by the terms of the treaty of Montgomery , 29 Sept. 1267 , this land passed to the Welsh . FULK V ( 1251 - 1315 ), active in the wars against the Welsh at the end of the 13th cent. , was ordered to aid Bere castle , near Towyn, Mer. , in 1294 , and numerous demands were made upon him to find men from Shropshire for the king 's service. He was in conflict with Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1277 about lands in Bauseley, Mont. , and before 25 Feb. in this year he m. Margaret , daughter of Gruffydd ap Wenwynwyn by Hawise , daughter of John Lestrange (see the article on that family); Fulk d. 1315 ; his widow d. on 11 May 1336 . [The direct male line came to an end in 1420 , when the last of eleven successive Fulk s died.] A WILLIAM FITZ WARIN , who may have been related to the lords of Whittington , was active in Welsh affairs in 1277 when he witnessed an agreement between Pain de Chaworth and Rhys ap Maredudd , and was present at the surrender of Gruffydd and Cynan , sons of Maredudd ab Owain , Llywelyn their nephew, and Rhys ap Rhys Fychan . In the 15th cent , another WILLIAM FITZ WARIN , levied men in Wales to attack and capture Whittington castle ; [he was Sir William Bourchier ( 1423 - 1469 ) lord Fitz Warin in right of his wife Thomasine , daughter and heiress of Elizabeth ( Hankerford ) , who was sister and heiress of the FULK XI who d. 1420 ; a grant ( 1450 ) of lands in Whittington by William and his wife appears in Edward Owen , Catalogue of MSS. relating to Wales in the B.M. , iii, 37618.]
Ivor John Sanders, M.A., (1911-91), Aberystwyth
No Welsh version of the romance has as yet come to light, but Welsh familiarity, if not with the romance itself then at least with the oral tradition which underlay it, is attested by the fairly frequent references to ‘ Syr Ffwg ’ or ‘ Ffwg ap Gwarin ’ in the poets, e.g. Gruffudd ap Maredudd (in his awdl to Owain Lawgoch , Poetry of the Red Book of Hergest , p. 107, lines 24-5), Iolo Goch , Guto'r Glyn , Dafydd Nanmor , Tudur Aled (consult the indexes to the modern edns. of their poetry), and Wiliam Llyn (ed. Morrice , p. 53, line 73). It must however be added that these poets never refer to the content of the romance; ‘ Syr Ffwg ’ is to them merely a type among others, of knightly prowess, and probably the exigencies of cynghanedd alone account for clichés like ‘Ffwg a'i ffon’ — ‘Fulk and his staff,’ i.e. probably his spear-shaft, or possibly his cudgel (referring in that case to the incident on p. 339 of the Rolls Series ed. of the romance.)
A curious variant of the story — indeed, a matter which occurs not at all in the ‘Romance’ itself — appears in a ‘moral parable’ printed by Isaac Foulkes in his Cymru Fu , p. 84. Here, the hero is called ‘ Fulk of Glamorgan ,’ is sheriff of Cardiff , and lives in Cardiff castle . If we deleted the comma between ‘Ffwg’ and ‘Morgannwg’ on p. 17 of T. Parry 's ed. of the Dafydd ap Gwilym corpus (in a set of englynion to Ifor Hael ) , we might see in the words a reference to this ‘ Fulk of Glamorgan .’ That ‘ Fulk of Glamorgan ’ was Fulk Fitz Warin is clear from the fact that the Cymru Fu anecdote speaks of his combats with Saracens .
Emeritus Professor Robert Thomas Jenkins, C.B.E., D.Litt., Ll.D., F.S.A., (1881-1969), Bangor
Published date: 1959